Psilocybin is also referred to as shrooms or magic mushrooms and is a naturally occurring psychoactive drug that has been used recreationally and therapeutically for thousands of years. Mushrooms are ingested either fresh or dried with nothing else, in food, or as a tea to mask the bitter taste.
Psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy is a reemerging therapy for addiction (alcohol, opioid, stimulant, etc.), anxiety (PTSD, GAD, OCD, etc.), depression (MDD, MDSI, end of life, etc.), pain (chronic, headaches, etc.), and other conditions.
Psilocybin tends to induce more introspection than other psychedelics.
Mood lift, euphoria
||Feeling more emotionally sensitive||Feelings of fear|
|Increased giggling & laughing||General change in consciousness (as with many psychoactives)||Nausea, gas, gastrointestinal discomfort|
Creative, philosophical or deep thinking: ideas flow more easily
||Time perception alteration||Mild to severe anxiety|
|Life-changing spiritual experience||Open and closed-eye visuals (common at medium or stronger dose)||Dizziness, confusion|
|Intense feelings of wonder||Sleepiness, lethargy||Can precipitate or exacerbate latent or existing mental disorders|
|Micro: 0.1-1g||Onset: 15-60 minutes|
|Light: 1-2g||Duration: 2-4 hours|
|Common: 2-4g||Total: 4-8 hours|
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy is a reemerging therapy for attachment insecurities, including PTSD, depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, suicidality, substance use disorders, and eating disorders
|Mild to extreme mood lift, euphoria||Decreased appetite||Anxiety or paranoia|
|Increased willingness to communicate||Visual distortion||Muscle and jaw tension|
|Increase in energy (stimulation)||Moderately increased heart rate and blood pressure (increases with dose)||Nausea and vomiting|
|Feelings of love and empathy||Restlessness, nervousness, shivering||Neurotoxicity~hangover lasting days to weeks|
|Decreased fear, anxiety, and insecurities||Change in body temperature regulation||Small risk of death; approximately 2 per 100,000 users.|
|Light: 40-75mg||Onset: 20-70 minutes|
|Common: 75-125mg||Duration: 2-3 hours|
|Strong: 125-175mg||Total: 3-5 hours|
|Heavy: 175mg+||After-effects: 2-24 hours|
Mescaline is a psychoactive drug that’s derived from the Peyote & San Pedro cactus that has been therapeutically used by Native Americans for thousands of years.
Mescaline-assisted psychotherapy is a reemerging therapy for addiction, major depression, existential distress associated with a serious illness, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Mescaline is listed in the U.S. as a Schedule I drug. It is deemed to have a high potential for abuse and is not recognized for medical use. However, Mescaline has recently been legalized in Oregon and Colorado for personal use. Mescaline is also federally legal for certain groups (such as the Native American Church) and in scientific and medical research.
|Feelings of interconnectedness||Altered thinking processes||Nausea & Vomiting|
|Spiritual events||An altered sense of time and self-awareness||Unwanted spiritual and/or psychological experiences|
|Euphoria||Closed and open-eye visual phenomena||Tension|
|Increased sense of touch, smell & vision||Increased cardiovascular activity||Anxiety|
|Music enhancement||Increased cardiovascular activity||Intense feelings of dread and doom|
|Threshold: 100mg||Onset: 1-3+ hours|
|Light: 100-200mg||Duration: 6-12 hours|
|Common: 200-300mg||After-effects: 3-5 hours|
|Strong: 300-500mg||Total: 10-20 hours|
DMT (dimethyltryptamine) is a psychedelic drug that can be found in the pineal gland and lungs of humans, as well as in a number of plants and animals. The two most common forms of ingesting DMT are either vaporizing the venom known as 5-MeO-DMT from a rare species of toad, Bufo Alvarius or drinking the leaves of the Psychotria viridis bush that are in Ayahuasca, a traditional Amazonian sacrament.
DMT-assisted psychotherapy is a reemerging therapy for addiction, major depression, existential distress associated with a serious illness, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Several present day studies and years of shamanic wisdom suggest that it may be useful for treating various psychiatric disorders and addictions. One study in particular conducted by the Journal of Affective Disorders surveyed 1571 depressed participants and 1125 participants with anxiety. 78% reported that their depression was either ‘very much’ improved (46%), or ‘completely resolved’ (32%); while 70% of those with anxiety reported that their symptoms were ‘very much’ improved (54%), or ‘completely resolved’ (16%). It is also important to note that 2.7% and 4.5% of drinkers with depression or anxiety, respectively, reported worsening of symptoms.
DMT is listed in the U.S. as a Schedule I drug. It is deemed to have a high potential for abuse and is not recognized for medical use. However, DMT has recently been legalized in Oregon and Colorado for personal use. DMT is also federally legal for certain groups (such as the UDV Church) and in scientific and medical research.
|Euphoria||Time dilation||Panic attack/Bad trip|
|Feeling of awe||Intense hallucinations & dissociation||Nausea/Vomiting|
|Realizations about one's life||Loss of comprehension of basic concepts such as ego, language or one's own body.|
|Unconventional thought patterns|
|Light ~ 30-50mg||Onset 20-45 minutes|
|Common ~ 50-75mg||Duration 3-8 hours|
|Strong 100 mg||After-effects 15-60 minutes|
|Light 10-15 mg||Onset 0-2 minutes|
|Common 15-25 mg||Duration 3-10 minutes|
|Strong 25-40+ mg||After-effects 15-60 minutes|
LSD-assisted psychotherapy is a reemerging therapy for anxiety, PTSD, depression, psychosomatic diseases, and addiction.
LSD is listed in the U.S. as a Schedule I drug. It is deemed to have a high potential for abuse and is not recognized for medical use. However, LSD has recently been legalized in Oregon for personal use.
|Mood lift, euphoria, sense of well being||Racing thoughts, thought loops||Tension|
|Closed and open eye visuals, including the saturation of colors, tracers, etc.||Extreme pupil dilation; increased sensitivity to light||Anxiety, restlessness, confusion|
|Enhanced audio/tactile senses||Inability to focus||Nausea|
|Increase in associative & creative thinking; introspection||Slight increase in body temperature and heart rate||Dizziness|
|At high doses, feeling of 'oneness' with everything; ego death||Time dilation; seconds feel like minutes, minutes like hours||Vasoconstriction|
|Microdose: 5- 10ug||Onset: 0.5-2 hours|
|Light: 50-100ug||Total: 8-12 hours|
Ibogaine, also known as the visionary vine” or “the dream vine”, is a naturally occurring psychedelic substance found in the root bark of the Iboga shrub, which is indigenous to Western Africa. Ibogaine has been used for thousands of years in West Africa for healing rituals and initiation ceremonies. It was also used to treat opiate addiction in the 1950s and ’60s, but it was eventually banned due to its dangerous side effects.
Ibogaine-assisted psychotherapy is a reemerging therapy for substance abuse (specifically opioid addiction), mood, and anxiety disorders.
Ibogaine is classified as a Schedule I drug, and is not currently approved for addiction treatment (or any other therapeutic use) because of its hallucinogenic, cardiovascular and possibly neurotoxic side effects
|Addiction suppression||Time dilation||Cardiovascular abnormalities|
|Mindfulness||Intense hallucinations & dissociation||Anxiety/delusion|
|Increased appreciation||Stimulation||Panic attack/Bad trip|
|Thought organization||Bodily sensations||Nausea/Vomiting|
|Elevated Emotions||Unconventional thought patterns||Diarrhea/constipation|
|Common: 500-1,000mg (15-22mg/kg of body weight)||Onset: 0.5-3 hours|
|Strong: may result in fatal heart complications||Total: 18-36+ hours|
LSD Ergot, may have been used to make the potion called kykeon, used in the Eleusinian Mysteries.
A burial site in Northern Chile included a bag with snuffing paraphernalia and snuff remnants containing DMT and 5-MeO-DMT.
Juan de Cardenas described peyote use in the Indies. This is the oldest published account of peyote use.
Iboga was promoted to the public at the Paris Exposition. Afterward, tonics based on the whole plant extract became extremely popular in France and Belgium.
MDMA was first synthesized by Anton Köllisch and patented by Merck Pharmaceuticals in Germany.
Dr. Albert Hofmann, working for Sandoz laboratories, synthesized LSD-25. He stated, “I had planned the synthesis of this compound with the intention of obtaining a circulatory and respiratory stimulant”. Colleagues showed no interest in it, so testing was discontinued.
In the American Journal of Psychiatry, Dr. Charles Savage published the first study of the use of LSD to treat depression. Dr. Humphry Osmond and Dr. Abram Hoffer began treating alcoholics with LSD and mescaline at Weyburn Hospital in Saskatchewan, Canada. They reported abstinence rates of 50%.
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